What are the factors influencing infection caused by pathogens?

The diseases caused by pathogens which are also called as viruses and bacteria and that spread from one person to another person is called as infectious diseases. They may also be called as communicable diseases.  The communicable diseases impair health and have a heavy toll of human health. Therefore, it has become a great problem to control them. 

The viruses and bacteria enter into human body, alter the normal functioning of the immune system. They produce toxins in the human body, then multiply and develop in inside the body which result in infections. It is said that a person who has weak immunity are more prone to get infections which result in health problem. A person who undergoes less physical work and yoga training are vulnerable to these infectious diseases. 

Transmission of pathogens- 

The diseases are transmitted to healthy person in a following ways-

  • There are some diseases that produce sores and lesions on the skin of infected person. Contact with materials discharged from these sores and lesions brings about infection. 
  • By using used towels and others things of infected persons.
  • Unclean hands of small children may carry germs to mouth. 
  • Some diseases are caught by merely being in a confined place with an infected person.
  • By sneezing, coughing or spitting of infected person. A person coming in contact can get infection.
  • Soil contains many pathogens. They can enter the human body when coming in contact with soil through injuries.
  • Animal bites are also the sources of infections.
  • The pathogens may reach human via air and dust also.

The communicable diseases are classified into different types according to the nature of causative agent. For example- Viral diseases like chickenpox, smallpox, influenza, measles, polio. Bacterial diseases like tetanus, typhoid fever, cholera, food poisoning. Fungal diseases like ringworm and athlete’s foot. Protozoan diseases like malaria, oriental sore, sleeping sickness etc. These all are called as pathogens.

The pathogens produce diseases by causing damage in tissues or by secretion of toxins. The viruses and bacteria damage cells and cause lesions in the body. These sometimes become inflated and oozes blood. These also attack the protective membrane of the organs and the tissues that prove fatal to human health. The toxins act like a poison to the human body and alter various functions of organs. 

The microbes multiply till they produce enough toxins to make the symptoms of the disease begin to appear. This interval is called as the beginning of the infection. This may vary from some days to weeks of mild symptoms. Multiplication goes on and more toxins are released and the disease become more severe. The natural defense of the body become null and the body immune system become unable to tackle the microbes. Thus, microbes overcome the body defenses and the victim dies. There are also so many cases where the body resistance fight against these microbes and defense system of the body recovers from the disease. A person become fit and fine. 

Factors influencing infection-

Factors which influence a person’s chance of developing a disease when the microbes enter the body are-

Number of invading organisms-

 A person who whose body is invaded by a large number of microbes is naturally likely to suffer from the disease than the one invaded by only a few microbes. The number of organisms needed to cause a disease depends on the defense system of a person and the number of stains of microbes.

Resistance of the body of diseases- 

As we all know that some persons catch infection more easily than others. This is due to a person’s low resistance to a disease. Resistance of disease is lowered by improper nourishment, changes in lifestyle, insufficient sleep, lack of exercise and yoga training, fatigue due to over work, exposure to extremes of weather and sudden changes in temperature and illness. 

Immunity- 

A person who has recently suffered from a disease or has been vaccinated or inoculated against it is immune to it. Some people inherit a high degree of natural immunity to certain diseases. Age is also a factor in immunity. adults often do not catch children’s disease. Children of age 17-25 years and aged person more than 60 years are more susceptible to diseases and health problems. 

Preventive measures against these diseases caused by pathogens include general cleanliness and washing of hands with soap and water before handling food, washing of food and vegetables properly, Protection of food items from dust, flies etc. To sterilize or eliminate the breeding grounds of flies and mosquitoes, Proper disposal of waste and taking suitable medicines under the advice of physician.  By having a proper knowledge, their mode of transmission, symptoms and prevention can help a lot in control of these diseases and infection caused by the pathogens.

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